11. Since no one returns from death, we can never be certain about what passes through the mind of the dying person. For the unconscious, the confused, and the heavily sedated, these final moments are probably meaningless. However, for the mentally alert, it is quite possible that death presents itself as an unbelievably glorious experience, a flight into an entirely new universe of sensation. Why should we think so? Some people who have been reprieved from “certain” death at the last moment have experienced what goes through the consciousness of those who are not so fortunate. For example, parachutists who have survived falls report experiences that resemble psychedelic “trips.”
The primary point of the argument in the passage is
(A) no one returns from death
(B) dying can be a glorious experience
(C) we can never know what passes through the mind of a dying person
(D) some people are reprieved from death at the last moment
(E) some people “die”, yet live to report their, experiences
12. Aristotle wrote that a tyrant would be well advised to put on the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion. Subjects are more tolerant of unjust treatment from a ruler whom they consider god-rearing and pious. Moreover as most subjects believe that even the gods are on the side of the ruler, the subjects are less apt to move against him.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which Aristotle’s argument depends?
(A) The subjects of tyrannical rulers typically believe that there is a power other than the mortal.
(B) A tyrant cannot rule unless he has divine power on his side.
(C) The subjects of tyrannical rulers can rarely be fooled by appearances.
(D) Tyrants who are devoted to religion will not treat their subjects unjustly.
(E) For a tyrant, the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion is a more effective means of ruling than unjust treatment.
13. That gadget I bought for the kitchen last week has already broken. It’s just another example of the shoddy products that we are seeing more and more of these days. The thing was probably manufactured in East Golo.
Which one of the following is the best expression of an unstated premise that underlies the author’s reasoning in the passage?
(A) If a manufacturer uses shoddy materials to make a gadget, the gadget is likely to break quickly.
(B) If a gadget breaks quickly, it was probably manufactured in East Golo.
(C) If a kitchen gadget was manufactured in East Golo, it should not be sold in this country.
(D) If everything that is manufactured in East Golo breaks quickly, then kitchen gadgets manufactured in East Golo are likely to break quickly.
(E) Nothing that is manufactured in East Golo can be expected to last more than a week.
14. All those who keep a journal will be heard by the next generation. Some of these journal writers are true artists, others humorous observers of the commonplace, and still others insufferable egotists who feel compelled to record their every thought.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?
(A) Not all of those who are humorous observers of the commonplace will be heard by the next generation.
(B) Everyone who will be heard by the next generation keeps a journal.
(C) The next generation will hear both insufferable egotists and true artists.
(D) Some of those who keep journals are not true artists, humorous observers of the commonplace, or insufferable egotists.
(E) The next generation will bear some of those who are true artists but not all of them.
15. Sven: Trade unions are traditionally regarded by governments and economists as restraints of trade, working against the complete freedom of the economy, but I believe that unions are indispensable since they are often the worker’s only protection against exploitation.
Ravi: I don’t agree. The exploitation of the workers and their work is a normal part of ordinary trade just like the exploitation of natural or other material resources.
Sven and Ravi will not be able to resolve their disagreement logically unless they
(A) define a key term
(B) rely on the opinions of established authorities
(C) question an unproved premise
(D) present supporting data
(E) distinguish fact from opinion