2022-06-07 20:18:34


  第四篇历史双篇 弗吉尼亚制宪会议上的发言

  Passage 1, by Patrick Henry,and Passage 2, by Edmund Pendleton, are adaptedfrom speeches delivered to theVirginia ratifyingconvention in 1788. Both are in response to the proposal by the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution establishing a national government.

  题目: 两篇文章都是关于是否要用“1787年宪法”取代“联邦条例”的演说。演说是在弗吉尼亚宪法批准会上,演说人1是Patrick Henry; 演说人2是Edmund Pendleton


  Passage 1

  Ifa wrong step be now made, the republic may be lost forever. If this newgovernment will not come up to the expectation of the people, and they shall bedisappointed, their liberty will be lost, and tyranny must and will arise.


  【单词】republic:n a state inwhich the supreme power rests in the body of citizens

  【翻译】如果现在迈出错误的一步,共和可能会永远失去。 如果这个新政府达不到人民的预想,他们将会失望,自由将会丧失,。

  . . . And here I would makethis inquiry of those worthy characters who composed a part of the late federalConvention『指邦联议会中制定和支持新宪法的人(不是所有的人都支持新宪法,所以说part of)』. Iam sure they were fully impressed with the necessity of forming a great consolidated government, instead ofa confederation. That this is a consolidated government is demonstrablyclear; and the danger of such a government is, to my mind, very striking.


  【单词】federal Convention:指邦联的议会。1787年宪法本来召开是为了修正一些邦联条例中的问题,但最后开成了制宪会议。制订了1787年宪法。

  【翻译】…在此,我想请问那些邦联议会中的某些人。我相信他们对组建一个伟大而统一的政府,而不仅限于邦联的必要性印象深刻。 这会是一个统一的政府,这点清晰无误; 而在我看来,这样一个政府的危险是非常惊人的。

  I have the highestveneration for those gentlemen; but, sir『主席先生』,give me leave to demand, What right had theyto say, We, the people『美国宪法首句就是We the people of the United States』? My politicalcuriosity, exclusive of myanxious solicitude for the public welfare, leads me to ask, Who authorized them to speakthe language of, We, the people, instead of,We, the states? States are the characteristics and the soul of aconfederation. If the states be not the agents of this compact, it must be one great, consolidated, national government, of the people of all the states....

  【阐释】关键句what right had they to say WE THE PEOPLE。


  【单词】give me leave to demand:giveme permission to demand leave=permission to do something 请允许我

  exclusive of : not including something 除去,不包括

  agent: na person or thing that acts or has the power to act.

  【翻译】我对这些先生们怀有最崇高的敬意; 但是,主席先生,请允许我发问,他们有什么权力说“我们,人民”?抛开我对公众福祉的担心外,:谁授权他们(在宪法中使用)“我们,人民”,而不是“我们,各州”?州才是联盟的特征和灵魂。 如果各州都无权在这份契约中作为代理人出现,那它必须是一个伟大的、统一的,属于各州人民的统一的国家政府....

  The people gave them no powerto use their name. That they exceeded their power is perfectly clear. It isnot mere curiosity that actuates me: I wish to hear the real, actual, existing danger,which should lead us to take those steps, so dangerous in my conception. Disorders have arisen inother parts of America; but here, sir, no dangers, noinsurrection or tumult have happened; everything has been calm andtranquil. But, notwithstanding this, we are wandering on the great ocean of humanaffairs. I see no landmark to guideus. We are running we know not whither. Difference of opinion has goneto adegree of inflammatory resentment in different parts of the country,which has been occasioned『vt togive occasion or cause for; bring about.引起』 bythis perilous innovation. The federal Convention ought to have amended the old system; forthis purpose they were solely delegated; the object『目的』 of their missionextended to no other consideration. You must, therefore, forgive the solicitation of one unworthymember to know what danger could havearisen under the present Confederation, and what are the causesof this proposal to change our government.

  【阐释】本段开头,是紧紧承接上一段的内容。可以看到,首句The people gave them no power to usetheir name是对上段who authorized them to speak the language of, We, the people的回答。反正,人民,并没有赋予他们这种权力。所以,他们越权了。

  接着,作者又以退为进(让步),针对“越权可能是出于某种特定局势下的需要”的想法,否定了弗吉尼亚并没有产生“足以采纳新宪法的”危机。并在结尾重申了“federal convention”本该是履行“完善邦联条例”的职责,却开了成“制宪会议”这种越权的行为。并质问这种做法的必要性?

  【翻译】人民并没有赋予他们以“人民的名义”颁布这份新宪法的权力。也就是说,他们儹『音zan(三声)』越权力的事实显而易见。我可不仅仅是出于好奇心:我希望听到实实在在存在的危机,能让我们必须采用这些步骤(指采纳新宪法,把国家变成统一的国家)的危机,那种在我的观念中足够紧迫的危机。美洲其他地区已经出现动荡;但在这里,主席先生,没有危险,;一切都平静而祥和。但是,尽管如此,我们正漫游在人类事物的广袤海洋之中。我看不到指引我们的地标。我们正在奔向未知的前方。意见的差异,已经在一定程度上被这种危险的创新,在国家不同地区引发深深怨恨。联邦议会应该是去修正旧制度『而不是制订新的宪法,注意ought to have done 形式,现在完成时的虚拟语气』,也正是基于这一目的,他们才能被委派,他们肩负使命再无其他。因此,主席先生,请原谅一位卑微的成员的如果恳切的想知道,当下邦联可能会发生什么危机,而建议改变我们(联邦条例下的)政府的原因是什么呢?

  Passage 2

  Mr. Chairman, my worthy friend (Mr. Henry) has expressedgreat uneasiness in his mind, and informed us that a great many of ourcitizens are also extremely uneasy,at the proposal of changing our government....

  【阐释】括号中提到Mr. Henry,可以想象的到,这段发言就是回应上文Henry的发言的。


  . . . [A]n objection ismade to the form: the expression, We, the people, is thought improper. Permit me to ask the gentleman who made thisobjection, who but the people can delegate powers? Who but the people have a rightto form government? The expression is a common one, and a favoriteone with me. The representatives of the people, by their authority, is a mode wholly inessential. If the objection be,that the Union ought to be not of the people, but of the state governments, then I think the choice of the former very happy and proper.What have the state governments to do with it?...

  【阐释】针对Henry对使用“We the people”的用法,给出辩解,“一切权力属于人民”,当然在新宪法上,也是以人民的名义。

  【单词】mode:n a particulartype or form of something

  【翻译】。。。一条反对意见是针对宪法条文用词的:认为“我们,人民”的表达方式欠妥当。 请允许我反问一下提出这个意见的反对者,除了人民,谁还能代表权力呢?除了人民,谁还能有权力组建政府呢?这种表达方式再普通不过,而且是我所偏爱的。被人民赋予权力的人民的代表,只是一种无关紧要的形式。如果质疑国家不该是人民的国家,而是各州政府的联合,那我倒认为前者的说法更为适当且乐于看到。各州政府同这个新的政体又有什么关系呢?。。。

  1But the power of the Convention is doubted.What is the power? To propose, not todetermine. This power of proposingwas very broad; it extended to remove all defects in government: themembers of that Convention, who were to consider all the defects in our general government, werenot confined to any particular plan. 2Were they deceived? This is the properquestion here. Suppose the paper on your table dropped from one of the planets; the people foundit, and sent us here to consider whether itwasproper for their adoption; must we not obey them? 3Thenthe question must be between this government and the Confederation. The latter is no government at all. It has been said that it has carried us, through a dangerouswar, to a happy issue.Not that Confederation, but commondanger, and the spirit of America, were bonds of our union: union and unanimity,and not that insignificant paper, carried us through that dangerous war. “United, we stand—divided,we fall!” echoed and reechoed throughAmerica—from Congress to the drunken carpenter—was effectual, and procured theend of our wishes, though now forgotten by gentlemen, if suchthere be, who incline to let go this stronghold, to catch at feathers; for such allsubstituted projectsmay prove.


  第一个层次(用1标识):和上段紧密联在一起的。上段说“权利属于人民”宪法文稿必须要用“the people”。然后解释邦联议会的权限,是为了消除当前政府中一切缺陷,提出不局限于任何特定框架的建议。

  第二个层次(用2标识):第二层werethey deceived?This is the proper question here. 其中proper question怎么理解?



  【单词】issue:n the ultimateresult, event, or outcome of a proceeding, affair, etc. 最终的结果

  【翻译】1但对邦联议会的(制订出宪法的)权力仍存疑问。(邦联议会的)权力是什么?是建议,而非决断。建议权所包括的内容非常广泛;它涉及到消除政府的一切缺陷。(制宪)会议的成员们,审视了我们(当前)政府的所有缺陷,并不局限于任何特定的方案。2他们被蒙蔽了吗?这才是正确的问题。假设桌上的文件是从一颗什么行星上从天而降;人民发现了它,并把我们召集于此,考虑是否适合采纳;我们能对此不理不睬吗?3那么问题就在于在这个政府和邦联之间做出选择。后者根本算不上是个政府。有人讲,邦联支撑我们经历危险的战争,到达幸福的结果。并非联邦,而是共同的危险,是美洲精神,让我们的联合的内聚力:联合和一致,而不是那份微不足道的文件『指Articlesof Confederation』,支撑我们经历了那场危险的战争。“联合,我们屹立;分开,我们倒下!”,这个在美洲一再传扬的道理 - 从国会直到醉醺醺的木匠 - 是有效的,并促成我们的最终的愿望,虽然现在已经被(仅为去抓住羽毛而抛弃立足点的)绅士们忘记了,如果的确是这样(如果他们确实忘记了);所有采取的代替做法『指宪法以外,任何其他代替做法』将会证明(他们的做法真的是为了抓住羽毛而把立足点抛弃了)。