Paleolithic Cave Paintings
In any investigation of the origins of art, attention focuses on the cave paintings created in Europe during the Paleolithic era (c. 40,000-10,000 years ago) such as those depicting bulls and other animals in the Lascaux cave in France. Accepting that they are the best preserved and most visible signs of what was a global creative explosion, how do we start to explain their appearance? Instinctively, we may want to update the earliest human artists by assuming that they painted for the sheer joy of painting. The philosophers of Classical Greece recognized it as a defining trait of humans to "delight in works of imitation"—to enjoy the very act and triumph of representation. If we were close to a real lion or snake, we might feel frightened. But a well- executed picture of a lion or snake will give us pleasure. Why suppose that our Paleolithic ancestors were any different?
This simple acceptance of art for art's sake has a certain appeal. To think of Lascaux as a gallery allows it to be a sort of special viewing place where the handiwork of accomplished artists might be displayed. Plausibly, daily existence in parts of Paleolithic Europe may not have been so hard, with an abundance of ready food and therefore the leisure time for art. The problems with this explanation, however, are various. In the first place, the proliferation of archaeological discoveries—and this includes some of the world's innumerablerock art sites that cannot be dated—has served to emphasize a remarkablylimited repertoire of subjects. The images that recur are those of animals.Human figures are unusual, and when they do make an appearance, they are rarely done with the same attention to form accorded to the animals. If Paleolithic artists were simply seeking to represent the beauty of the world around them, would they not have left a far greater range of pictures—of trees, flowers, of the Sun and the stars?
A further question to the theory of art for art's sake is posed by the high incidence of Paleolithic images that appear not to be imitative of any reality whatsoever. These are geometrical shapes or patterns consisting of dots or lines. Such marks may be found isolated or repeated over a particular surface but also scattered across more recognizable forms. A good example of this may be seen in the geologically spectacular grotto of Pêche Merle, in the Lot region of France. Here we encounter some favorite animals from the Paleolithicrepertoire—a pair of stout-bellied horses. But over and around the horses' outlines are multiple dark spots, daubed in disregard for the otherwise naturalistic representation of animals. What does such patterning imitate?There is also the factor of location. The caves of Lascaux might conceivably qualify as underground galleries, but many other paintings have been found in recesses totally unsuitable for any kind of viewing—tight nooks and crannies that must have been awkward even for the artists to penetrate, let alone for anyone else wanting to see the art.
Finally, we may doubt the notion that the Upper Paleolithic period was a paradise in which food came readily, leaving humans ample time to amuse themselves with art. 【*】For Europe it was still the Ice Age. 【*】An estimate of the basic level of sustenance then necessary for human survival has been judged at 2200 calories per day. 【*】This consideration, combined with the stark emphasis upon animals in the cave art, has persuaded some archaeologists that the primary motive behind Paleolithic images must lie with the primary activity of Paleolithic people: hunting. 【*】
Hunting is a skill. Tracking, stalking, chasing, and killing the prey are difficult, sometimes dangerous activities. What if the process could be made easier—by art? In the early decades of the twentieth century, Abbé Henri Breuil argued that the cave paintings were all about “sympathetic magic. ” The artists strived diligently to make their animal images evocative and realistic because they were attempting to capture the spirit of their prey. What could have prompted their studious attention to making such naturalistic, recognizable images?According to Breuil, the artists may have believed that if a hunter were able to make a true likeness of some animal, then that animal was virtually trapped.Images, therefore, may have had the magical capacity to confer success or luck in the hunt.
Question 1 of 14
According to paragraph 1, what is significant about the paintings in the Lascaux caves?
A. They provide accurate depictions of the bulls and other animals living in Paleolithic France.
B. They are the best available source of information about daily life during the Paleolithic era.
C. They are some of the best surviving examples of what was possibly one of the world's earliest artistic movements.
D. They are the only evidence of creative expression among Paleolithic human beings.
Question 2 of 14
In paragraph 1, why does the author mention the views of the philosophers of Classical Greece?
A. To show how explanations about the appearance of cave painting during the Paleolithic have changed over time
B. To present a theory about humans and art that may be applicable to the Paleolithic era
C. To argue that Paleolithic paintings were created for the joy of painting, while Classical art was created to accurately represent the natural world
D. To demonstrate that the Greek philosophers were the first to accurately understand Paleolithic art
Question 3 of 14
Paragraph 2 suggests that the Lascaux cave paintings could have been created as art for art's sake only if which of the following were true?
A. Caves were often used as viewing places for handiwork of all kinds.
B. Artists during the Paleolithic era were especially accomplished.
C. Paleolithic people were able to satisfy their basic needs fairly easily.
D. People in Paleolithic Europe learned about art from people living in other areas.
Question 4 of 14
The word “Plausibly ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 5 of 14
Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. The limited variety in the subjects of rock art paintings has become increasingly evident in the many sites discovered.
B. The limited repertoire of subjects found in rock art has made it difficult for archaeologists to determine when each painting was created.
C. In the first place, there is little new archaeological information on the subject of rock art because of the limited number of recent discoveries.
D. Because many rock art sites cannot be dated, archaeologists have limited information about how rock art varied from period to period.
Question 6 of 14
According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true about human figures as subjects of rock art?
A. Human figures almost always appear alone and never appear with animals.
B. Images of humans are both rarer and less accurately drawn than those of animals.
C. Some of the most beautiful images in Paleolithic rock art are of human figures.
D. There is more variety in how humans are depicted in cave art than in how animals are.
Question 7 of 14
The word “spectacular ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
Question 8 of 14
In paragraph 3, why does the author include a description of a painting of horses from the grotto of Pêche Merle?
A. To emphasize that stout-bellied horses were the most commonly found animals in that region at the time the painting was made
B. To provide evidence that Paleolithic artists created realistic images more often than they created paintings of dots or lines
C. To give an example of a cave painting that contains elements that do not imitate reality
D. To demonstrate that Paleolithic artists captured many details of the animals they painted, such as the spots on the horses' coats
Question 12 of 14
The word “prompted ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. brought about
B. interfered with
Question 9 of 14
According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true of the paintings located in the Lascaux caves?
A. They are all found in recesses that are difficult for viewers to reach
B. They fill every nook and cranny of a large underground gallery
C. Their location was probably more convenient for viewers than for the artists
D. They are easier to view than cave paintings at other locations.
Question 10 of 14
The word “diligently ” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. with no success
B. with talent and skill
C. with mixed results
D. with persistence and hard work
Question 11 of 14
According to paragraph 5, Breuil proposed which of the following theories about the purpose of cave paintings?
A. They were used to teach young hunters the skills they needed to hunt.
B. They were images created to help people forget about the dangers and difficulties of their daily lives.
C. They were used in magic rituals to increase people's understanding of the natural world.
D. They were meant to capture the spirits of animals and thus bring success in the hunt.
Question 13 of 14
Look at the four squares[*] to add the sentence to the passage.
Obtaining this level of nourishment from such a harsh environment must have consumed most of Paleolithic people’s time and attention..
Question 14 of 14
Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it. To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.There are a number of arguments against the idea that Paleolithic cave paintings were created for the sheer joy of painting
A.It is generally agreed that art as imitation arose during the age of Classical Greece
B.Paleolithic artists often chose to paint pictures that were intended to frighten people
C.People in the Paleolithic era may not have had time for art, and the placement of the paintings does not indicate that they were meant to be looked at
D.Paleolithic artists chose to represent only a small segment of the natural world, and their paintings were not always strict imitations of nature
E.Hunting was central to Paleolithic life, and animals are central to cave art, leading some to believe that the paintings were created to bring luck to hunters.
F.Humans were rarely the subjects of cave paintings because it was thought that capturing the image of a hunter would cause the hunter to be virtually trapped.
本题定位到原文：Accepting that they are the best preserved and most visible signs of what was a global creative explosion这半句话。 此处原文的大意是：在我们接受了它们是保存最好的、最可视化的全球创造大爆发的产物后…... 题干问的是Lascaux cave最重要的是什么。 选项A的意思是它们提供了旧石器时代最精确的对于牛和其他动物的描绘信息，选项B的意思是它们是描述旧石器时代日常生活最有效的信息源，选项C的意思是它们是最早的世界上的艺术运动的最好的存在例子，选项D的意思是它们是旧石器时代人类的创造性表达的唯一证据。只有选项C符合原文。其余三个选项均不合适。
本题定位到原文：The philosophers of Classical Greece recognized it as a defining trait of humans to "delight in works of imitation"—to enjoy the very act and triumph of representation. 此处原文的大意是：古希腊的哲学家认为这种壁画证明人们是因为单纯可以从作画过程中得到乐趣而进行这种绘画活动。 题干问的是作者为什么要提到这些哲学家。 选项A的意思是为了解释旧石器壁画随时间的变化，选项B的意思是为了证明旧石器时代一个关于人类和艺术的理论，选项C的意思是为了论证旧石器时代的绘画是因为单纯的乐趣而创造的，虽然古典艺术是为了精确再现自然世界而产生的，选项D的意思是为了证明古希腊的哲学家是第一批准确理解旧石器时代艺术的人。选项B正确，其他三个选项均不符合文意。
本题定位到原文：Plausibly, daily existence in parts of Paleolithic Europe may not have been so hard, with an abundance of ready food and therefore the leisure time for art. 此处原文的大意是：看似合理的是，旧石器时代欧洲的生活并没有那么困难，食物应该是充足的，所以人们才有进行艺术创作的休闲时间。 题干问的是旧石器时代壁画艺术被单纯作为艺术而创作的前提是什么。 选项A的意思是壁画被视为各种工艺品的观看的地方，选项B的意思是旧石器时代的艺术家均是有成就的人，选项C的意思是旧石器时代的人能够很容易地满足他们的基本需要，选项D的意思是旧石器欧洲的人从其他地区学习到了这种艺术。选项C符合原文。其余三个选项均不合适。
本题定位到原文：Plausibly, daily existence in parts of Paleolithic Europe may not have been so hard, with an abundance of ready food and therefore the leisure time for art. 此处原文的大意是：看似合理的是，旧石器时代欧洲的生活并没有那么困难，食物应该是充足的，所以人们才有进行艺术创作的休闲时间。 题干问的是plausibly的意思和四个选项中的哪一个最相似。 选项A的意思是相似的，选项B的意思是明显的，选项C的意思是理想地，选项D的意思是可能地。选项D最符合plausibly的意思。其他三个选项则不符合。
本题定位到原文：In the first place, the proliferation of archaeological discoveries—and this includes some of the world's innumerable rock art sites that cannot be dated—has served to emphasize a remarkably limited repertoire of subjects. 此处原文的大意是：首先，考古发现的繁荣发展——以及它包含了世界无数不可追溯时间的岩石艺术地点——证明了其绘画对象的有限性。 题干问的是四个选项里的哪句话是这句话的最好的同义转述。 选项A正确转述了原文的主要意思，选项B说作画对象的有限性导致了考古学家不好确定每一个画作创造的时间，这个因果关系是无中生有，不选;选项C说因为最近的考古发现很少，所以岩石绘画的对象的信息也很少，也是无中生有，不选;选项D说因为岩石绘画有很多不能被确定时间，所以考古学家对于岩石画作随时间的变化并不了解，也是无中生有，不选。
本题定位到原文：Human figures are unusual, and when they do make an appearance, they are rarely done with the same attention to form accorded to the animals. 此处原文的大意是：人物画像不常见，当人物画像出现的时候，我们也会发现它们很少能达到和动物画像一样符合动物实物的情况。 题干问的是关于人物画像，正确的信息是哪一条。 选项A的意思是人物画像一直单独出现，几乎不和动物画像一起出现;选项B的意思是人物画像很少见，并且不如动物画像精确;选项C的意思是一些最漂亮的旧石器岩石壁画是画的人物;选项D的意思是人物画像的多样性强于动物画像的多样性。选项B最符合原文。其他三个选项则都是无中生有。
本题定位到原文：A good example of this may be seen in the geologically spectacular grotto of Pêche Merle, in the Lot region of France. 此处原文的大意是：这个现象的一个好例子可能会被发现于法国Lot地区Pêche Merle的一处壮观的洞穴里。 题干问的是spectacular的意思和四个选项里的哪一个最合适。 选项A的意思是独特的，选项B的意思是印象深刻的，选项C的意思是隔绝的，选项D的意思是受保护的。选项B最符合spectacular的意思。其余三个选项则不合适。
本题定位到原文： Here we encounter some favorite animals from the Paleolithic repertoire—a pair of stout-bellied horses. But over and around the horses' outlines are multiple dark spots, daubed in disregard for the otherwise naturalistic representation of animals. 此处原文的大意是：我们可以在岩壁上看到一些旧石器时代人们最喜欢的动物的画像，比如大肚子的两匹马的画像。但是在马身上和周围有乱画的小黑点，算不上是自然主义的对于动物形象的呈现。 题干问的是为什么作者要描述一副关于马的画? 选项A的意思是为了说明大肚子的马是当时最常见的动物，选项B的意思是为了说明旧石器的人比起画点和线条外更倾向于创造现实主义的图画，选项C的意思是为了说明岩壁画包含一些并不是模仿现实的内容，选项D的意思是为了证明旧石器的艺术家捕捉到了很多细节，比如说马皮上的斑点。选项C符合原文。其余三个选项则不符合文意。
本题定位到原文：The caves of Lascaux might conceivably qualify as underground galleries, but many other paintings have been found in recesses totally unsuitable for any kind of viewing...... 此处原文的大意是：Lascaux的岩画质量好到可以被视为是地下画廊，其他地区的壁画状态则很差，差到则不适合被观察。 题干问的是Lascaux的岩画和其他地区的有什么不同。 选项A的意思是它们质量在逐渐变差，以至于不能被观察，选项B的意思是它们铺满了一处地下画廊的每一处裂隙和角落，选项C的意思是它们的位置更适合观察者去观察而不是适合研究者去观察，选项D的意思是它们比其他地区的壁画更容易观察。选项D符合文意。其他三个选项均不符合。
本题定位到原文：The artists strived diligently to make their animal images evocative and realistic because they were attempting to capture the spirit of their prey. 此处原文的大意是：因为艺术家在尝试着去捕捉笔下事物的灵魂，所以他们一直致力于让他们的动物形象有感染力且真实。 题干问的是diligently的含义和哪个选项最贴近。 选项A的意思是不成功的，选项B的意思是通过天赋和能力，选项C的意思是带有混杂结果的，选项D的意思是通过坚持和勤奋。选项D最符合diligently的意思。其余三个选项则不符合。
本题定位到原文：According to Breuil, the artists may have believed that if a hunter were able to make a true likeness of some animal, then that animal was virtually trapped. 此处原文的大意是：根据Breuil的说法，古代的绘画者可能相信如果猎手可以画出很像猎物的图像，他就可以真的捕获这个动物。 题干问的是Breuil认为旧石器人画壁画的目的是什么。 选项A的意思是它们被用来教年幼的猎人应该学习什么样子的捕猎技能，选项B的意思是它们是为了帮助人们忘记生活中的困难和危险，选项C的意思是它们被用在魔法仪式里，以增加人们对于自然世界的理解，选项D的意思是它们意味着捕捉动物的灵魂，以成功狩猎。选项D符合原文意思，其余三个选项则不符合。
本题定位到原文：What could have prompted their studious attention to making such naturalistic, recognizable images? 此处原文的大意是：是什么让他们用心地去创作如此自然的、可辨认的图画? 题干问的是prompted的意思和哪个选项的意思最接近。 选项A的意思是带来，选项B的意思是干涉，选项C的意思是增加，选项D的意思是改变。选项A最符合prompt的含义。其余三个选项则均不合适。
本题定位到原文：倒数第二段。 此处原文的大意是：本段主要讲述了旧石器岩画和当时的人们的狩猎行为的关联。 题干问的是“从艰苦的环境里获得这种程度的营养物质想必消耗掉了旧石器人们大多数的时间和注意力”该插入哪个位置。 此题做题的关键是需要插入句子里的this level of nourishment。只有选项C的前面的一句话里提到 2200 calories per day，对应了nourishment，选项C合适。其他三个可插入点都没有可以对应的内容。
选项A无中生有，文中说Greece是为了表明这是他们哲学家的观点，而不是为了说明时间，不选; 选项B的“目的是去恐吓别人”这个信息是无中生有，原文中没有对应的信息，不选; 选项C正确概括了第二段的内容，选; 选项D正确概括了第三段的内容，选; 选项E正确概括了倒数第二段的内容，选; 选项F的因果关系是无中生有的，文中没有给出过人类很少成为绘画对象的原因，不选。
题目解析：本题定位到原文：So it's interesting to note that the use of recorded sound was originally controversial. 此处原文的大意是：我们不妨来说说声音最开始应用的时候是怎样有争议的。 题干问的是这个讲座的大意是什么。 选项A的意思是电影院对于早期有声电影的影响，选项B的意思是早期有声电影的声音使用中的争论，选项C的意思是在声音发展之后电影的巨大进步，选项D的意思是观看者对于早期有声电影的反应。只有选项B符合原文，其余三个选项都不合适。
题目解析：本题定位到原文：And it's not that most people didn't want sound in films. It's just that the technology wasn't available yet. Don't forget that instead of recorded sound, there was often live music that accompanied movies in those days, like a piano player or a larger orchestra in the movie theater. ...... Also, think of the stage, the live theater, it has used wonderful sound effects for a long time. And if wanted, these could be produced during the viewing of a film. You know, the rolling of drums for thunder or whatever. But that wasn't as common. ...... Oh, and another thing, that they might have in movie theaters in the early days, was a group of live actors reading the parts to go along with the film, or, and this seems a particularly bad idea to us now, one person narrating the action. 此处原文的大意是： 1. 以前的电影不是不需要声音，而是技术没有发展到可以加进声音的程度，而且当时还有现场演奏; 2. 剧院里已经使用了很好声音效果很长时间了; 3. 电影播放现场会有配音演员现场发声; 题干问的是默片剧院会使用怎样的声音。 选项A的意思是现场音乐演奏，选项B的意思是剧院里创造出来的音效，选项C的意思是录制好的声音，选项D的意思是电影里的现场旁白，选项E的意思是电影之前的音乐演出。选项ABD符合原文。其余两个则不符合。
题目解析：本题定位到原文：an early example of a long tradition of movie producers, the ones concerned mostly about making money, not having much confidence in their audience, thinking that people somehow couldn't follow the events otherwise. 此处原文的大意是：这一点很好地例证了当时绝多数情况下只顾挣钱的影片制作人，对自己的观众没信心，担心不这么做，观众就看不懂电影了。题干问的是教授对于早期电影制作人的态度。 选项A的意思是他对他们在电影上的影响持批判的态度，选项B的意思是他觉得他们没有影响电影，选项C的意思是他觉得他们能理解观众需要的东西，选项D的意思是他认为他们可能会有进步。只有选项A合适，其余三个选项均不符合原文。
题目解析：本题定位到原文：So many of the films of the twenties were basically straight adaptations of successful shows from the stage, theatre. 此处原文的大意是：因此，20年代的电影基本上都是直接从舞台(也就是剧院)里成功的戏剧直接转换过来的。 题干问的是二十世纪二十年代有声电影的特征是什么。选项A的意思是角色之间的对话最少，选项B的意思是很多电影是紧紧基于戏剧的，选项C的意思是音乐被添加到了大多数电影里，选项D的意思是声音被单独录制然后后期加进电影里。选项B合适原文，其余三个选项均不合适。
题目解析：本题定位到原文：Music, unless we see the radio or the orchestra, that's nonsynchronous. If the camera shot is of the listener rather than the speaker that's nonsynchronous. If we hear, say, background sounds that aren't on the screen, that's nonsynchronous. 此处原文的大意是：除非我们看到无线电或者管弦乐队，音乐就是“非同步声”。如果摄像机拍到的是听众，而不是演讲者，那就是“非同步声”。如果我们听到的不在屏幕上的背景音，那就是“非同步声”。 题干问的是同步声的例子是哪一个。 选项A的意思是角色听到火车声但看不到火车，选项B的意思是过去的对话在角色脑海中重现，选项C的意思是角色弹吉他唱歌，选项D的意思是片尾曲。只有选项C符合原文，其余三个选项不符合。