literature主要讲述了18-19世纪英国浪漫主义(Romanticism)诗歌的代表人物Wordsworth 的诗。他是浪漫主义的鼻祖，但浪漫主义这个称谓是后人加上的，不是他们本身这样称呼自己的(此处出题)。Romanticism不是我们平时理解的 romance，和男女之间的爱情无关。Romanticism针对的是common people而不是少数educated people， 用的是simple language，描述的是日常生活中常见的事物，孩子，人类情感，以及自然和人类之间的互动。教授以自己为例，说自己在此时感受到了这种互动(此处出题)。与 romanticism 针锋相对的一种风格是 neoclassicism新古典主义，也是那位 romanticism 的鼻祖很反对的。Neoclassicism使用太多的 elaboration，如 sky 不叫 sky，而叫 blue 什么的;bird 不叫bird，而叫 feathered person。
Romanticism is a style in the fine arts and literature. It emphasizes passion rather than reason, and imagination and intuition rather than logic. Romanticism favors full expression of the emotions, and free, spontaneous action rather than restraint and order.
Romanticism can be seen as a rejection of the precepts of order, calm, harmony, balance, idealization, and rationality that typified Classicism in general and late 18th-century Neoclassicism in particular.
It was also to some extent a reaction against the Enlightenment and against 18th-century rationalism and physical materialism in general. Romanticism emphasized the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the spontaneous, the emotional, the visionary, and the transcendental.
Romanticism in literature. During the Romantic Movement, most writers were discontented with their world. It seemed commercial, inhuman, and standardized. To escape from modern life, the Romantics turned their interest to remote and faraway places, the medieval past, folklore and legends, and nature and the common people. The Romantics were also drawn to the supernatural.
Wordsworth, William (1770-1850), is considered by many scholars to be the most important English Romantic poet. In 1795, Wordsworth met Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The two men collaborated on Lyrical Ballads (1798), a collection of poems frequently regarded as the symbolic beginning of the English Romantic movement.
Wordsworth argued that serious poems could describe "situations from common life" and be written in the ordinary language "really used by men." He believed such poems could clarify "the primary laws of our nature." Wordsworth also insisted that poetry is "emotion recollected in tranquility."
He explained that his poetry used everyday language rather than the elevated poetic language of such earlier writers as Dryden and Pope because everyday language comes closer to expressing genuine human feeling. For the same reason, he wanted to write about everyday topics, especially rural, unsophisticated subjects.
Wordsworth and Coleridge lived most of their lives in the scenic Lake District of northwestern England and wrote expressively about the beauties of nature and the thoughts that natural beauty inspires. Many of their blank verse poems are written in a meditative, conversational tone new to English poetry.
Wordsworth, as we have said, is the chief representative典型的 of some of the most important principles原则 in the romantic movement, but he is far more a member of any movement, through his supreme poetic expression of some of the greatest spiritual ideals he belongs among the five or six greatest English poets.
First, he is the profoundest interpreter of nature in all poetry. His feeling for nature has two aspects. he is keenly sensitive, and in a more delicately discriminating way than any of his predecessors, to all the external beauty and glory of nature, especially inanimate nature of mountains, woods and fields, streams and flowers, in all their infinitely varied aspects. A wonderful joyous and intimate sympathy with them is one of his controlling impulses.
In the second place, Wordsworth is the most consistent of all the great English poets of democracy, though here as elsewhere his interest is mainly not t in the external but in the spiritual aspect of things.
The obstinacy and these poems are only the most conspicuous result of Wordsworth chief temperamental defect, which was an almost total lack of the sense of humor. Regarding himself as the prophet of a supremely important new gospel, he never admitted the possibility of error in his own point of view and was never able to stand aside from his poetry and criticize it dispassionately.
问题三：重听题 是对古典主义诗的描述，说他们把 bird 说成 fly people。
作为例子和证据，证明教授的观点：Romanticism 针对的是 common people 而不是少数 educated people，用的是 simple language，描述的是日常生活中常见的事物，孩子，人类情感，以及自然和人类之间的互动。教授以自己为例，说自己在时感受到了这种互动。