2022-06-14 13:07:00


  Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immi-

  grants to central California’s Pajaro Valley focuses on

  the development of farming communities there from

  1890 to 1940. The Issei (first-generation immigrants)

  (5) were brought into the Pajaro Valley to raise sugar beets.

  Like Issei laborers in American cities, Japanese men in

  rural areas sought employment via the “boss” system.

  The system comprised three elements: immigrant wage

  laborers; Issei boardinghouses where laborers stayed;

  (10) and labor contractors, who gathered workers for a

  particular job and then negotiated a contract between

  workers and employer. This same system was originally

  utilized by the Chinese laborers who had preceded the

  Japanese. A related institution was the “labor club,”

  (15)which provided job information and negotiated employ-

  ment contracts and other legal matters, such as the

  rental of land, for Issei who chose to belong and paid an

  annual fee to the cooperative for membership.

  When the local sugar beet industry collapsed in 1902,

  (20) the Issei began to lease land from the valley’s strawberry

  farmers. The Japanese provided the labor and the crop

  was divided between laborers and landowners. The Issei

  began to operate farms, they began to marry and start

  families, forming an established Japanese American

  (30) community. Unfortunately, the Issei’s efforts to attain

  agricultural independence were hampered by govern-

  ment restrictions, such as the Alien Land Law of 1913.

  But immigrants could circumvent such exclusionary laws

  by leasing or purchasing land in their American-born

  (35) children’s names.

  Nakane’s case study of one rural Japanese American

  community provides valuable information about the

  lives and experiences of the Isseil. It is, however, too

  particularistic. This limitation derives from Nakane’s

  (40) methodology—that of oral history—which cannot

  substitute for a broader theoretical or comparative

  perspective. Furture research might well consider two

  issues raised by her study: were the Issei of the Pajaro

  Valley similar to or different from Issei in urban settings,

  (45) and what variations existed between rural Japanese

  American communities?

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  (A) defend a controversial hypothesis presented in a

  history of early Japanese immigrants to Califronia

  (B) dismiss a history of an early Japanese settlement in

  California as narrow and ill constructed

  (C) summarize and critique a history of an early

  Japanese settlement in California

  (D) compare a history of one Japanese American

  community with studies of Japanese settlements

  throughout California

  (E) examine the differences between Japanese and

  Chinese immigrants to central California in the


  2. Which of the following best describes a “labor club,” as

  defined in the passage?

  (A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to

  belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro


  (B) An association whose members included labor

  contractors and landowning “bosses”

  (C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who

  had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time

  (D) A cooperative association whose members were

  dues-paying Japanese laborers

  (E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and

  their families belonged

  3. Based on information in the passage, which of the

  following statements concerning the Alien Land Law of

  1913 is most accurate?

  (A) It excluded American-born citizens of Japanese

  ancestry from landownership.

  (B) It sought to restrict the number of foreign

  immigrants to California.

  (C) It successfully prevented Issei from ever purchasing


  (D) It was applicable to first-generation immigrants but

  not to their American-born children.

  (E) It was passed under pressure from the Pajaro

  Valley’s strawberry farmers.

  4. Several Issei families join together to purchase a

  strawberry field and the necessary farming equipment.

  Such a situation best exemplifies which of the

  following, as it is described in the passage?

  (A) A typical sharecropping agreement

  (B) A farming corporation

  (C) A “labor club”

  (D) The “boss” system

  (E) Circumvention of the Alien Land Law

  5. The passage suggests that which of the following was an

  indirect consequence of the collapse of the sugar beet

  industry in the Pajaro Valley?

  (A) The Issei formed a permanent, family-based


  (B) Boardinghouses were built to accommodate the


  (C) The Issei began to lease land in their children’s


  (D) The Issei adopted a labor contract system similar to


  used by Chinese immigrants.

  (E) The Issei suffered a massive dislocation caused by


  6. The author of the passage would most likely agree that

  which of the following, if it had been included in

  Nakane’s study, would best remedy the particularistic

  nature of that study?

  (A) A statistical table comparing per capita income of

  Issei wage laborers and sharecroppers in the Pajaro


  (B) A statistical table showing per capita income of

  Issei in the Pajaro Valley from 1890 to 1940

  (C) A statistical table showing rates of farm ownership

  by Japanese Americans in four central California

  counties from 1890 to 1940

  (D) A discussion of original company documents

  dealing with the Pajaro Valley sugar beet industry at

  the turn of the century

  (E) Transcripts of interviews conducted with members

  of the Pajaro Valley Japanese American community

  who were born in the 1920’s and 1930’s.

  7. It can be inferred from the passage that, when the Issei

  began to lease land from the Valley’s strawberry

  farmers, the Issei most probably did which of the


  (A) They used profits made from selling the strawberry

  crop to hire other Issei.

  (B) They negotiated such agricultural contracts using the

  “boss” system.

  (C) They paid for the use of the land with a share of the

  strawberry crop.

  (D) They earned higher wages than when they raised

  sugar beets.

  (E) They violated the Alien Land Law.