Rotelle: You are too old to address effectively the difficult issues facing the country, such as nuclear power, poverty, and pollution.
Sims: I don’t want to make age an issue in this campaign, so I will not comment on your youth and inexperience.
6. Sims does which one of the following?
(A) demonstrates that Rotelle’s claim is incorrect
(B) avoids mentioning the issue of age
(C) proposes a way to decide which issues are important
(D) shows that Rotelle’s statement is self-contradictory
(E) fails to respond directly to Rotelle’s claim
7. Rotelle is committed to which one of the following?
(A) Many old people cannot effectively address the difficult issues facing the country.
(B) Those at least as old as Sims are the only people who cannot effectively address the difficult issues facing the country.
(C) Some young people can effectively address the difficult issues facing the country.
(D) If anyone can effectively address the difficult issues facing the country, that person must be younger than Sims.
(E) Addressing the difficult issues facing the country requires an understanding of young people’s points of view.
8. Political theorist: The chief foundations of all governments are the legal system and the police force; and as there cannot be a good legal system where the police are not well paid. It follows that where the police are well paid there will be good legal system.
The reasoning in the argument is not sound because it fails to establish that:
(A) many governments with bad legal systems have poorly paid police forces
(B) bad governments with good legal systems must have poorly paid police forces
(C) a well-paid police force cannot be effective without a good legal system
(D) a well-paid police force is sufficient to guarantee a good legal system
(E) some bad governments have good legal systems
9. Court records from medieval France show that in the years 1300 to 1400 the number of people arrested in the French realm for “violent interpersonal crimes” (not committed in wars) increased by 30 percent over the number of people arrested for such crimes in the years 1200 to 1300. If the increase was not the result of false arrests, therefore, medieval France had a higher level of documented interpersonal violence in the years 1300 to 1400 than in the years 1200 to 1300.
Which one of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) In the years 1300 to 1400 the French government’s category of violent crimes included an increasing variety of interpersonal crimes that are actually nonviolent.
(B) Historical accounts by monastic chroniclers in the years 1300 to 1400 are filled with descriptions of violent attacks committed by people living in the French realm.
(C) The number of individual agreements between two people in which they swore oaths not to attack each other increased substantially after 1300.
(D) When English armies tried to conquer parts of France in the mid- to late 1300s, violence in the northern province of Normandy and the southwestern province of Gascony increased.
(E) The population of medical France increased substantially during the first five decades of the 1300s, until the deadly bubonic plague decimated the population of France after 1348.
10. Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or other legumes produce fixed nitrogen which is one of the essential plant nutrients and which for non-legume crops, such as wheat, normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen-based fertilizer. So if biotechnology succeeds in producing wheat strains whose roots will play host to Rhizobium bacteria, the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced.
The argument above makes which one of the following assumptions?
(A) Biotechnology should be directed toward producing plants that do not require artificial fertilizer.
(B) Fixed nitrogen is currently the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops.
(C) There are no naturally occurring strains of wheat or other grasses that have Rhizobium bacteria living in their roots.
(D) Legumes are currently the only crops that produce their own supply of fixed nitrogen.
(E) Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would produce fixed nitrogen.